BRUSSELS — The European Commission Monday proposed new rules aimed at reducing the risks that complex financial products pose to the financial system, as well as new restrictions on pay policies that might encourage excessive risk-taking at banks.

The rules would require banks holding re-securitized assets to keep extra capital on their books as a buffer against potential losses. These investment products — which include collateralized debt obligations, or CDOs, and other bundles of asset-backed securities — have been a major cause of the financial crisis.

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