BRUSSELS — The European Parliament voted Thursday to kill a deal giving U.S. counter-terrorism authorities access to banking data collected by the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications, a Brussels-based registry of international financial transactions known by its acronym, Swift.

The vote, by 378 to 196, is a show of strength for the parliament, long an institutional weakling but emboldened by new powers granted under the Lisbon Treaty. It also presents a diplomatic headache for the Obama administration, which is keen to build support amongst European allies but also to shore up its terrorism-fighting cred at home.

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