Using a new data base, Federal Reserve Board economists measure the effect consolidation, changing neighborhood income, the Community Reinvestment Act, and bank failures have had on the delivery of banking services.

Robert B. Avery, Raphael W. Bostic, Paul S. Calem, and Glenn B. Canner find that from 1975 to 1995 banks primarily opened offices in middle- and upper-income parts of urban areas, but in rural and suburban areas income did not affect branch placement.

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