WASHINGTON — Small banks will likely have to raise capital in the coming years, while bigger institutions are doing much better than a year ago, Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke said Thursday.

Regional and community banks face tough challenges, especially in residential mortgages and commercial real estate loans, Bernanke told a bankers conference in Chicago in prepared remarks a year after the Fed tested the resilience of the 19 largest U.S. banks in so-called stress tests.

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