WASHINGTON — It was a year of firsts for the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau in 2012 as it finalized its first rule, took its first few enforcement actions and struck its first deals with state regulators and municipalities to enhance data sharing.

But the real challenges for the agency — and the banking industry — lie ahead as the CFPB next year is expected to complete new rules covering a broad swath of the market and significantly ramp up its enforcement against banks and nonbanks.

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