Short sales and forgiveness of second liens continued to dominate relief efforts made by the top five banks as part of the national mortgage settlement, and Californians continue to receive the bulk of the benefits.

The top five mortgage servicers provided a combined $45.8 billion in consumer relief to more than 550,000 delinquent or underwater borrowers — or roughly $82,668 per homeowner — but that amount cannot be used to measure the banks' progress toward their obligations, Joseph A. Smith, the settlement's monitor, said Thursday.

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