The Justice Department's antitrust division has stepped up its investigation of charges that the membership policies of Visa and MasterCard are restrictive.

The agency recently called in one of its former attorneys to assist in the inquiry. The hiring of Jeffrey Blumenfeld, who is in private practice in Washington, is an indication of the department's serious intent, legal observers said.

Subscribe Now

Access to authoritative analysis and perspective and our data-driven report series.

14-Day Free Trial

No credit card required. Complete access to articles, breaking news and industry data.