WASHINGTON — Even before the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. unveils details of its plans to assess a special premium on all institutions, large banks are criticizing the proposal as unjustifiable, punitive, and unfair.

According to sources, the agency wants to base the premium on a bank's assets, not its deposits — a major break from long-standing practice. As a result, several of the largest institutions that rely heavily on alternative forms of funding, including Citigroup Inc. and JPMorgan Chase & Co., would face much higher premiums.

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