WASHINGTON — The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau's use of enforcement actions to try and make broad changes to the auto lending market is fragmenting the industry further and potentially limiting a consumer's ability to negotiate for a lower interest rate.

The agency has so far cited a handful of indirect auto lenders for unintentional discrimination under the controversial legal theory of disparate impact. It has forced Toyota Motor Credit Corp., American Honda Finance Corp. and Fifth Third Bank to pay restitution and limit the extent to which a partnering auto dealer can raise interest rates on loans as a means of compensation. But there are key differences in each of these agreements that are making it harder for the CFPB to make systemwide changes.

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