As its title suggests, "Commercial Banking Structure, Regulation, and Performance: An International Comparison," an economics working paper from the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) describes the banking structure, permissible banking activities, regulatory structure, deposit insurance schemes, and supervisory practices in the 15 European Union countries, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States. It also suggests that the more inclusive practices of countries other than the United States have no effect on performance.

Part of the inspiration for the empirical part of the study, which examines the relationship between regulation and performance, was a statement made by Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland President Jerry L. Jordan: "Banking companies should not be required to get permission from regulators before doing something new. Rather, they should notify authorities of their intentions. If regulators want to prevent the action, the burden should be on them to intervene in a timely way to demonstrate that the costs exceed the benefits."

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