WASHINGTON — With the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. poised to complete a rule Friday that would charge a special assessment based on an institution's assets, not its deposits, winners and losers are becoming clearer.

Though it was immediately clear that the largest banks would be at a disadvantage under the change, observers also noted Wednesday that some smaller institutions — including those that rely heavily on Federal Home Loan Bank advances — will also take a hit. The plan would also hurt the remaining big investment banks, which typically hold a significant amount of assets in their banking units but do not hold many deposits.

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