Capital One Financial Corp. had talked to American Express Co. about a partnership in the United States, but the bank card issuer abandoned the idea in light of Visa's and MasterCard's bylaws, which prohibit members from working with other brands, according to testimony Friday in the credit card antitrust case.

James Cracchiolo, president of Travel Related Services International, Amex's international division, testified that his company was forced instead to make a foreign deal with Capital One. The contract was signed in March.

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