WASHINGTON — The eight largest financial institutions will have to raise roughly $68 billion over the next several years to meet a tough new leverage ratio finalized by regulators on Tuesday.

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., the Federal Reserve Board, and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency unanimously endorsed the ratio, which is designed to prevent the largest banks from becoming as highly leveraged as they were in the lead up to the 2008 financial crisis.

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