WASHINGTON — After spending nearly a year deliberating on an approach, the Federal Reserve Board on Friday released a proposal that would overhaul the way regulators will supervise foreign banks that operate in the United States, a significant shift from its longstanding case-by-case method.

The board unanimously voted at an open board meeting to release the plan, which was initially foreshadowed in a speech made by Fed. Gov. Daniel Tarullo late last month.

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