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Bitcoin for the Underbanked

The hype about cryptocurrencies and their potential to reshape our financial system is justified—but not in the way most people would expect.

Outside of tech-forward circles of rich young men, most Americans still don’t know or care very much about Bitcoin and its contemporaries. There is immense opportunity to apply the unique properties of cryptocurrencies to build products for the 80 million Americans who are least served by the existing financial system—a group sometimes referred to as the emerging middle class.

This population spends $90 billion year on alternative services such as check cashers, payday loans, auto loans, and more. Their particular financial needs—liquidity, fast payments and access to affordable credit as well as saving and planning tools—are poorly met by industry incumbents. The challenges of this mass market segment shine light on the areas where the financial services industry is truly broken. Build solutions for the emerging middle class, and you’ll create value for everyone.

Among the most exciting innovations in cryptocurrency are applications that leverage Bitcoin’s distributed trust network to create faster, more secure platforms for currency exchange. So-called crypto rails like the Ripple network allow currencies and payments to flow cheaply, rapidly and smoothly as information on the internet. (Disclaimer—my venture capital firm, Core Innovation Capital, is invested in Ripple Labs.)

Platforms like Ripple and other cryptocurrency features can benefit everyday people in four primary areas: remittances, liquidity, access to cash and access to credit.

Global remittance flows top $550 billion a year, with $20 billion flowing between the U.S. and Mexico alone. The typically lower-income people who send money to friends and relatives in their home countries pay 8.14% in average transaction costs, spending a total of $3.5 billion in remittance fees per year.

Crypto rails can help provide relief from such costly fees. Numerous digital currency startups already make it easier to buy Bitcoin with cash (Local Bitcoins, ZipZap), a phone number (Blossom) or credit and debit cards (Circle). But the numerous steps involved in the process, a lack of trust in the system and limited ways to buy Bitcoin with cash inhibit people from using Bitcoin to save on remittance fees.

 Ripple Labs and BitPesa among others, are striving to address these problems. BitPesa is a new remittance service to Kenya that leverages Bitcoin to reduce the cost and time of money transfers. The Ripple protocol is a distributed exchange network that allows exchanges between any fiat currency as well digital currencies like bitcoins and ripples. Using this protocol, users in the U.S. can send dollars to places like Mexico, routing the transaction through the lowest-cost exchange path on the network, and have the payments converted into pesos and delivered into the recipient's wallet in seconds.

Emerging middle class consumers can also benefit from the liquidity and speed offered by crypto rails. People who lack access to traditional bank accounts pay $1.8 billion in check cashing and $700 million in bill pay fees each year to receive and make payments rapidly.

Crypto rails enable these consumers to receive funds sent by peers, employers, or lenders in a digital wallet in minutes or seconds. Users can also use their digital wallets to pay bills or send money to family members at a rapid speed and minimal cost. Meanwhile, companies like Xapo are developing bitcoin- and ripple-based debit cards that will allow customers to use existing point-of-sale merchant infrastructure to make digital currency payments offline.

Customers who prefer to use cash can load money onto digital wallets at thousands of participating merchant locations thanks to ZipZap. The company's cash-loadable digital wallets helps people who lack easy access to traditional banks to accumulate savings, perform cross-border payments, send money transfers and make online payments

Finally, crytpocurrencies will eventually help creditworthy but overlooked customers to gain access to affordable loans. Customers who regularly pay bills through alternative channels can struggle to establish credit history. Because cryptocurrencies have common, public ledgers that log all transactions, they can offer lenders a clear view into an individual’s payment history as revealed by a public wallet address. Just as analytics companies like InVenture, Cignifi and First Access use consumers' mobile payment history to evaluate creditworthiness of unbanked people in emerging markets, underwriters will soon be able to evaluate public wallet addresses for insight into cash-flow and bill payment history.

The cryptocurrency ecosystem is steadily maturing. Bitcoin is evolving from a speculative asset to a medium of exchange, while mainstream companies are starting to build essential infrastructure to support digital currencies. Bad actors will increasingly be screened out by anti-money laundering and know your customer compliance gateways, and major industry players are joining the revolution, as demonstrated by the lineup for American Banker’s Digital Currencies event on July 29th.

But we have a long way to go before cryptocurrency powers everyday transactions for most Americans. By building solutions for the emerging middle class, entrepreneurs will use cryptocurrency for good and accelerate widespread adoption of these powerful tools. And that will benefit all of us. 

Arjan Schutte is the founder of and a managing partner at Core Innovation Capital, a venture capital firm targeting financial technology companies for the emerging middle class. He is based in Los Angeles.


(5) Comments



Comments (5)
As a Bitcoin miner and early adopter, I just want to kindly warn anyone new to mining to be careful when selecting a provider. The industry is full of fraud as we've seen many times in recent months.

Please carefully review each provider BEFORE sending them money. One of the sites that you can review from is CloudMining.Guru.

Be smart, be careful and happy mining : )
Posted by Johnarban | Saturday, January 24 2015 at 5:36AM ET
Don't just think of Bitcoins specifically - think digital currency - dollars, pound, mark or franc, gold or oil can be made to do anything bitcoin can do
Posted by Gary Lewis Evans, CEO Paymency Inc. | Tuesday, July 22 2014 at 2:42PM ET
Arjan, The remittance process described appears smooth and cost-effective with Bitcoin and other "crypto-currencies" as a transit feature, but concerns with other necessary features of remittances exist. What are the costs of converting cash to Bitcoins for the sender of the remittance? How are CIP/OFAC/AML interdiction checks accomplished for both the sender of the remittance and the receiver of the remittance since my understanding of Bitcoins is no personal information exists due to the anonymity of both parties? In other words, is the transit of a Bitcoin even considered a legal cross-border transaction allowing any sender / receiver and financial institution / money transfer operator / card processor to affect the transfer, and if so, at what cost? Upon receipt of the remittance, what are the costs for converting Bitcoins into the receiving countries currency, assuming the conversion is to occur and Bitcoin as a currency is not usable in the country of receipt? Many questions are left unanswered although conceptually the process appears one with much promise, assuming Bitcon is recognized by regulatory authorities as a legitimate currency and loosens or removes CIP/OFAC/AML restrictions.
Posted by Randy G | Tuesday, July 22 2014 at 2:02PM ET
I agree with the opportunity. I have been working in digital finance since 1994 when I put La Jolla Bank online. I founded Bank of Internet (BofI) and it opened on July 4, 2000. My team and I are working on a nonbank bank and mobile payment network, . Our first target is the unbanked and cash economy. Our Beta is close to completion and launch. Of note, one of our advisors was President of Allstate Savings in 1985 and he was part of the launch of Discover, the last network to form.
Posted by Gary Lewis Evans, CEO Paymency Inc. | Tuesday, July 22 2014 at 1:39PM ET
Sure....let's give the under-banked with limited computer access a currency backed by country or commodity...that's crazy
Posted by Rhsmith999 | Tuesday, July 22 2014 at 1:20PM ET
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